Biofuel research nets precious metals and biofuel from toxic mining sludge

Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals and biofuel from mining sludge| 29/12/14
Originally published on MINING.COM by Cecilia Jamasmie

British scientists and authorities are conducting cutting-edge research aimed to clean up a flooded tin mine in Cornwall county by using algae to harvest precious heavy metals in toxic water and produce biofuel at the same time.

Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals and biofuel from mining sludge. Image courtesy of the GW4 Alliance.
Cornwall county, UK — Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals from mining sludge (creating biofuel in the process) Image courtesy of the GW4 Alliance.

The project, led by the GW4 Alliance, has brought together the universities of Bath, Bristol, Cardiff and Exeter, in collaboration with Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), the Coal Authority and waste management group Veolia. And while it is still in its very early stage, the parties involved hope it delivers an effective new way to deal with toxic waste.

The team, which is taking untreated mine water from the Wheal Jane tin mine, has already began growing algae in those samples to explore whether the organism is effective in removing harmful materials, such as arsenic and cadmium.

The plan is to convert the lab-grown algae into a solid from which heavy metals can be extracted and recycled for use in the electronics industry. The remaining solid waste will then be used to make biofuels.

The plan is to convert the lab-grown algae into a solid from which heavy metals can be extracted and recycled for use in the electronics industry. The remaining solid waste will then be used to make biofuels.

It’s a win-win solution to a significant environmental problem.

We’re putting contaminated water in and taking out valuable metals, clean water and producing fuel. — Dr. Chris Chuck from the University of Bath’s Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies said in a statement

The team hopes to begin a pilot project at the mine in the New Year. The aim will then be to scale it up. If successful, the scientists believe the technology could be used to treat many forms of environmental pollution.

Hot Sugar! The New Algae Biofuel

New Algae Biofuel: Holy Hot Sugar, Batman! | 20/02/14
by Tina Casey

When we say ‘hot sugar’ we mean a new generation of low cost industrial sugars that could help pull the biofuel market out of dependence on conventional crop based sugars. That leaves the field clear for the algae biofuel sector, and that’s where things start to get interesting.

A company called Proterro came across our radar last fall for just such an approach, which basically turns the first-generation biofuel model on its head.

Instead of taking apart plants to extract sugars for processing into biofuel, Proterro has figured out a way to get a micro-algae called cyanobacteria to secrete the “hot sugar” sucrose.

Industrial sugar production from cyanobacteria Courtesy of Proterro
Industrial sugar production from cyanobacteria. Image courtesy of Proterro

A Different Approach To Algae Biofuel

It’s worth noting up front that there are already several promising cost-effective pathways to extracting oils directly from algae and microalgae (here, here, and here for example), but there is plenty of room in this emerging fuel market for something different, namely, using algae to produce a sugar feedstock for fermentation into fuels and other products.

Also, for the record, cyanobacteria is commonly referred to as blue-green algae, but as its formal name indicates, it is actually a bacteria and not a form of marine plant life.

When we covered the news from Proterro last fall, the company had already won a US patent for its proprietary strain of cyanobacteria. In the latest development, Proterro has obtained a notice of allowance from the US patent office for the structural platform — a photobioreactor — that enables the bacteria to produce sugars at a highly efficient rate, in a process that uses carbon dioxide, sunlight, and water.

The Proterro Photobioreactor

According to Proterro, the photobioreactor is 30 times more productive than sugar cane, on an acreage basis, in terms of producing a “fermentation-ready” stream of sucrose.

That translates into a lower cost for sugar production, and part of the reason for that savings is the aforementioned photobioreactor.

Resembling a big earthbound balloon from the outside, the photobioreactor is actually a sturdy (withstanding Force 1 hurricane winds) built environment made from off-the-shelf materials.  Instead of using vats, pipes, or horizontal cultivating beds, the cyanobacteria grow on vertical fabric walls.

Before we move on let’s pause here and thank our friends over at Biofuels Digest for introducing us to the phrase “hot sugar.” Who knew?

Biofuels and Carbon Dioxide Capture

If a bell went off in your head when you saw carbon dioxide mentioned in the context of biofuels, you are in good company.

With a demonstration scale facility under its belt in Florida, Proterro is already prepared to scale up and hook up with carbon dioxide emitters to feed its cyanobacteria. Utility companies seem to be tops on its list, but there are numerous other opportunities out there for using microorganisms to capture industrial waste gasses and convert them into useful products.

A New Zealand company, for example, is already active in the field of capturing and converting emissions from steel mills.

That approach makes a lot more sense than some of the other carbon sequestration strategies under discussion these days, namely pumping it underground.

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This article, New Algae Biofuel: Holy Hot Sugar, Batman!, is syndicated from Clean Technica and is posted here with permission.

About the Author

Tina Casey specializes in military and corporate sustainability, advanced technology, emerging materials, biofuels, and water and wastewater issues. Tina’s articles are reposted frequently on Reuters, Scientific American, and many other sites. You can also follow her on Twitter @TinaMCasey and Google+

Third Generation Biofuels ready for primetime

by John Brian Shannon John Brian Shannon

As many of you know, most of the gasoline available in North America today has a biofuel component of between 5 – 10 percent. Newer cars and trucks are E85 compatible, meaning they can operate with up to 85 percent ethanol blended into the gasoline – which means there is a growth opportunity of up to 75 percent in the North American biofuel market.

CORE Biofuels Inc, has a patented process using enzymes to turn the wood, grass and paper waste that they receive into a pure form of high-octane gasoline with ultra-low benzene levels. The only by-products are water, pure C02 for use in carbonated beverages and heat which they use to generate 10 megawatts of electricity to sell to the local electrical grid!

Commercial and consumer waste in Quebec, Canada, are now going to be processed into bioethanol by Enerkem instead of ending up in landfills.

Boeing Aircraft has successfully tested biofuel use on it’s aircraft. In 2010, Boeing tested passenger jets and a U.S. Navy F/A 18E Super Hornet with a 50/50 blend of (petroleum-based) aviation fuel and (crop-based) camelina biofuel with excellent results.

Boeing’s Sustainable Biofuels Research & Technology Program (SBRTP) reported up to 80 percent less CO2 emissions for camelina-based biofuel – when compared to petroleum-based jet fuel.

An excerpt from the SBRTP summary states;

The Bio-SPK fuel blends used in the test flights have all either met or exceeded the performance specifications for jet fuel.

For example, the Bio-SPK fuel blends demonstrated higher energy density per unit mass than typical jet fuel, enabling airplanes to travel farther using less fuel.

For all of the test flights, the blended biofuel displayed no adverse effects on any of the aircraft systems.

Other biofuels are also available. Biodiesel fuel can be made from used cooking oil and is already being collected from restaurants and homes then filtered to become vegetable-oil based diesel fuel.

Some cities have done the calculations, and surprise! — it’s more cost effective to re-process cooking oil than to deal with the harm to the environment from toxic used oils. Not only that, many government vehicles run on that free fuel (for the cost of pick-up and filtering it) including city buses, trucks, and other government fleet vehicles. Getting two different kinds of uses instead of one — for every million litres of cooking oil — is a sign of progress.

It is quite popular in Europe for companies to buy used oil or freshly-harvested vegetable oil, filter it and sell it for use in vehicles. Interestingly, vegetable oil-based diesel fuel emits far less carbon dioxide and other pollutants per gallon of fuel than petroleum-based diesel fuel.

Quite unlike fossil fuels which cause a huge net gain to our atmosphere, the CO2 equation couldn’t be better for plant-based diesel. The CO2 gathered by the plant during its lifetime is (obviously) stored in the plant, which then becomes stored in the biofuel – and after combustion simply returns to the atmosphere from whence it came — making plant-based biofuels completely CO2 neutral.

Plants endlessly recycle the Earth’s existing CO2 and have been doing a good job of it for over 3 billion years. The more CO2 we have locked up in green plants and trees, the better for our environment, which is why we shouldn’t mind creating green biofuel plantations out of barren land.

Some countries have decided that biofuels belong in their future and have set thousands or millions of hectares aside for biofuel crop agriculture, as discussed in the book Biodiesel 2020 — 2nd Edition by Will Thurmond.

China recently set aside an area the size of England to produce jatropha and other non-food plants for biodiesel.

India has up to 60 million hectares of non-arable land available to produce jatropha, and intends to replace 20 percent of diesel fuels with jatropha-based biodiesel.

In Brazil and Africa, there are significant programs underway dedicated to producing non-food crops jatropha and castor for biodiesel. — Will Thurmond in Biodiesel 2020

A potential game-changer for biofuel has come about with the introduction of algae as a means to produce synthetic crude oil, at the same location as existing oil refineries using the familiar on-site petroleum storage tanks as algae growing ponds.

The economics for oil refineries couldn’t be better! When “going green” equals profit, that’s when transportation biofuels will take off for real.

Although biofuels offer an exciting new transportation fuel source, the biofuel industry does have it’s detractors, sometimes for good reason – but often the criticisms are unfounded.

First generation biofuel

Crops such as corn and sugar cane require a constant supply of water, fertilizers and plenty of land management. Without subsidies in place these crops can not compete in the real world. Not only that, these biofuel crops DO displace millions of hectares of human-food crop land.

Second generation biofuel

Camelina (a grain, which is not edible) and jatropha (a tree native to hot deserts with a bitter poisonous fruit) are tolerant of poor soils where food crops do NOT grow easily and usually do not require additional irrigation, survive on rainfall only.

The great thing about second generation biofuel crops is they are often grown in third-world nations where the plantations require hundreds of manual labourers to tend the crops throughout the year and thousands of labourers during harvest times. This provides much needed income to poverty-stricken families in arid regions of the world where jobs are otherwise quite scarce.

Third generation biofuel

Algae or enzyme-assisted conversion, require large amounts of water as part of the process but then release that water in a very pure form at the end of the process. It is so pure that trace minerals must be added to that water for normal taste and ph balance purposes.

While biofuels by themselves will not replace petroleum transportation fuels, they can act as feedstock, lower our dependence on foreign oil, dramatically lower CO2 and other toxic pollutants and and provide jobs for impoverished third-world nation citizens.

Not to mention “greening” vast swathes of previously barren land. Think of all the extra natural carbon dioxide capturing and storage potential as a side-benefit. I call that a win for biofuels!

Disclosure: A modified version of this article first appeared in the Huffington Post February 1, 2012 under the title; Biofuel a Win-Win: Green and Cost-Effective