Biofuels 101 – with some easy to understand links

Biofuels 101 – with some easy to understand links | 27/01/2014
by John Brian Shannon John Brian Shannon

Plant-based fuels (biofuels) are an excellent feedstock for the conventional petroleum industry as they can fill voids in the supply chain and as a bonus, biofuels feature dramatically lower carbon content/CO2 emissions.

Biofuel research. Image courtesy of EnergyBoom
Biofuel research. Image courtesy of EnergyBoom

When biofuel is blended 50/50 with conventional petroleum fuels, significantly lower CO2 emissions result as aircraft maker Boeing has proven in its trials of 50/50 blended biofuels in Boeing aircraft.

Boeing reports CO2 emissions dropped between 65%-80% when using blended fuel in their SBRPT programme.

Biofuel negatives

It must be recognized that there are some downsides to biofuels and number one on that list is the type of crop that is being used to produce biofuel.

Growing corn for biofuel on prime land, displaces land that could be used to grow food crops which could be a problem in the world’s breadbasket (the U.S.A.) where millions of hectares of food crops are grown.

“…producing ethanol from sugarcane is six times less expensive than producing ethanol from corn. Growing sugarcane requires fewer chemicals, including pesticides and fertilizers.” — How Stuff Works

Some crops are natural biofuel superstars, while some require millions or billions of dollars of subsidies in order to compete in the market.

Corn is a 1st-generation biofuel crop — and of all the biofuel crops it uses the most water and fertilizer by a significant margin, and it also requires the most land management.

For 2nd-generation biofuel crops such as camelina, castor, jatropha and millettia, these bountiful crops produce excellent returns with minimal infrastructure, pesticides and fertilizer.

Not only do these plants use much less water and fertilizer than corn, they can tolerate semi-arid conditions and they grow readily in sub-prime soils. Now is the time to begin switching to 2nd-generation biofuel crops.

And right behind that are 3rd-generation biofuel from algae, or from enzymes and biomass.

Some countries have decided that biofuels belong in their future and have set thousands or even millions of hectares aside for biofuel crop agriculture.

Indonesia, India, China and other countries are growing 2nd-generation biofuel crops and reaping much better returns than heavily-subsidized U.S. corn ethanol.

Such 2nd-generation biofuels provide work for thousands of farm labourers, much-needed income for farmers in developing nations, and adds to GDP and lowers demand on proved oil reserves. And a low level of technology is required to grow, harvest and process biofuels.

“Biodiesel growth from non-food feedstocks is gaining traction around the world.

For example, China recently set aside an area the size of England to produce jatropha and other non-food plants for biodiesel.

India has up to 60 million hectares of non-arable land available to produce jatropha, and intends to replace 20 percent of diesel fuels with jatropha-based biodiesel.

In Brazil and Africa, there are significant programs underway dedicated to producing non-food crops jatropha and castor for biodiesel.” — Biodiesel 2020 – 2nd Edition by Will Thurmond

No one is saying that biofuels are the entire solution to our liquid energy needs, but 2nd generation and 3rd-generation biofuels can be an important part of the solution while lowering overall CO2 emissions.

Related Information:

Boeing develops commerically viable ‘green diesel’ biofuel

Originally published on Reviving Gaia by Roy L Hales

Biofuel research in Boeing laboratory. Image Credit: Boeing.
Biofuel research in Boeing laboratory. Image by Boeing.

Boeing has identified a commercially viable “green diesel” that emits 50% less carbon dioxide than conventional fossil fuels.

It is made from oils and fats that are chemically similar to today’s aviation biofuel and, with US government incentives, costs about $3 a gallon.  That makes it competitive with petroleum jet fuel.

Were it not for the prohibitive cost, many airlines would already have been using renewable fuels.

Boeing has been a leader in this field since 2011, when a 747–8F flew to the Paris Airshow burning a B15 (15% biofuel) mix from camelina.

Together with 27 other airlines in the Sustainable Aviation Fuel Users Group, Boeing has been trying to develop a biofuel that is produced sustainably, without adverse impact to greenhouse gas emissions, local food security, soil, water and air.

“Green diesel approval would be a major breakthrough in the availability of competitively priced, sustainable aviation fuel,” said Dr. James Kinder, a Technical Fellow in Boeing Commercial Airplanes Propulsion Systems Division.

“We are collaborating with our industry partners and the aviation community to move this innovative solution forward and reduce the industry’s reliance on fossil fuel.”

Significant green diesel production capacity already exists in the U.S., Europe and Singapore that could supply as much as 1 percent – about 600 million gallons – of global commercial jet fuel demand. Diamond Green Diesel and Dynamic Fuels, have facilities in Louisiana. Neste Oil, based in Finland, has large green diesel refineries in Rotterdam (Netherlands) and Singapore.

Boeing, the F.A.A., engine manufacturers, green diesel producers and others are now compiling a detailed research report that will be submitted to key stakeholders in the fuel approvals process.

“Boeing wants to establish new pathways for sustainable jet fuel, and this green diesel initiative is a groundbreaking step in that long journey,” said Julie Felgar, managing director of Boeing Commercial Airplanes Environmental Strategy and Integration.

“To support our customers, industry and communities, Boeing will continue to look for opportunities to reduce aviation’s environmental footprint.”

The company is working with the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration and other stakeholders to gain approval for aircraft to fly on green diesel.  If approved, the fuel could be blended directly with traditional jet fuel.

This article, Boeing Discovers Promising Biofuel At $3 Per Gallon, is syndicated from Clean Technica and is posted here with permission.

Third Generation Biofuels ready for primetime

by John Brian Shannon John Brian Shannon

As many of you know, most of the gasoline available in North America today has a biofuel component of between 5 – 10 percent. Newer cars and trucks are E85 compatible, meaning they can operate with up to 85 percent ethanol blended into the gasoline – which means there is a growth opportunity of up to 75 percent in the North American biofuel market.

CORE Biofuels Inc, has a patented process using enzymes to turn the wood, grass and paper waste that they receive into a pure form of high-octane gasoline with ultra-low benzene levels. The only by-products are water, pure C02 for use in carbonated beverages and heat which they use to generate 10 megawatts of electricity to sell to the local electrical grid!

Commercial and consumer waste in Quebec, Canada, are now going to be processed into bioethanol by Enerkem instead of ending up in landfills.

Boeing Aircraft has successfully tested biofuel use on it’s aircraft. In 2010, Boeing tested passenger jets and a U.S. Navy F/A 18E Super Hornet with a 50/50 blend of (petroleum-based) aviation fuel and (crop-based) camelina biofuel with excellent results.

Boeing’s Sustainable Biofuels Research & Technology Program (SBRTP) reported up to 80 percent less CO2 emissions for camelina-based biofuel – when compared to petroleum-based jet fuel.

An excerpt from the SBRTP summary states;

The Bio-SPK fuel blends used in the test flights have all either met or exceeded the performance specifications for jet fuel.

For example, the Bio-SPK fuel blends demonstrated higher energy density per unit mass than typical jet fuel, enabling airplanes to travel farther using less fuel.

For all of the test flights, the blended biofuel displayed no adverse effects on any of the aircraft systems.

Other biofuels are also available. Biodiesel fuel can be made from used cooking oil and is already being collected from restaurants and homes then filtered to become vegetable-oil based diesel fuel.

Some cities have done the calculations, and surprise! — it’s more cost effective to re-process cooking oil than to deal with the harm to the environment from toxic used oils. Not only that, many government vehicles run on that free fuel (for the cost of pick-up and filtering it) including city buses, trucks, and other government fleet vehicles. Getting two different kinds of uses instead of one — for every million litres of cooking oil — is a sign of progress.

It is quite popular in Europe for companies to buy used oil or freshly-harvested vegetable oil, filter it and sell it for use in vehicles. Interestingly, vegetable oil-based diesel fuel emits far less carbon dioxide and other pollutants per gallon of fuel than petroleum-based diesel fuel.

Quite unlike fossil fuels which cause a huge net gain to our atmosphere, the CO2 equation couldn’t be better for plant-based diesel. The CO2 gathered by the plant during its lifetime is (obviously) stored in the plant, which then becomes stored in the biofuel – and after combustion simply returns to the atmosphere from whence it came — making plant-based biofuels completely CO2 neutral.

Plants endlessly recycle the Earth’s existing CO2 and have been doing a good job of it for over 3 billion years. The more CO2 we have locked up in green plants and trees, the better for our environment, which is why we shouldn’t mind creating green biofuel plantations out of barren land.

Some countries have decided that biofuels belong in their future and have set thousands or millions of hectares aside for biofuel crop agriculture, as discussed in the book Biodiesel 2020 — 2nd Edition by Will Thurmond.

China recently set aside an area the size of England to produce jatropha and other non-food plants for biodiesel.

India has up to 60 million hectares of non-arable land available to produce jatropha, and intends to replace 20 percent of diesel fuels with jatropha-based biodiesel.

In Brazil and Africa, there are significant programs underway dedicated to producing non-food crops jatropha and castor for biodiesel. — Will Thurmond in Biodiesel 2020

A potential game-changer for biofuel has come about with the introduction of algae as a means to produce synthetic crude oil, at the same location as existing oil refineries using the familiar on-site petroleum storage tanks as algae growing ponds.

The economics for oil refineries couldn’t be better! When “going green” equals profit, that’s when transportation biofuels will take off for real.

Although biofuels offer an exciting new transportation fuel source, the biofuel industry does have it’s detractors, sometimes for good reason – but often the criticisms are unfounded.

First generation biofuel

Crops such as corn and sugar cane require a constant supply of water, fertilizers and plenty of land management. Without subsidies in place these crops can not compete in the real world. Not only that, these biofuel crops DO displace millions of hectares of human-food crop land.

Second generation biofuel

Camelina (a grain, which is not edible) and jatropha (a tree native to hot deserts with a bitter poisonous fruit) are tolerant of poor soils where food crops do NOT grow easily and usually do not require additional irrigation, survive on rainfall only.

The great thing about second generation biofuel crops is they are often grown in third-world nations where the plantations require hundreds of manual labourers to tend the crops throughout the year and thousands of labourers during harvest times. This provides much needed income to poverty-stricken families in arid regions of the world where jobs are otherwise quite scarce.

Third generation biofuel

Algae or enzyme-assisted conversion, require large amounts of water as part of the process but then release that water in a very pure form at the end of the process. It is so pure that trace minerals must be added to that water for normal taste and ph balance purposes.

While biofuels by themselves will not replace petroleum transportation fuels, they can act as feedstock, lower our dependence on foreign oil, dramatically lower CO2 and other toxic pollutants and and provide jobs for impoverished third-world nation citizens.

Not to mention “greening” vast swathes of previously barren land. Think of all the extra natural carbon dioxide capturing and storage potential as a side-benefit. I call that a win for biofuels!

Disclosure: A modified version of this article first appeared in the Huffington Post February 1, 2012 under the title; Biofuel a Win-Win: Green and Cost-Effective