Halophytes: Growing food and biofuel in coastal desert regions

Originally published at johnbrianshannon.com
by John Brian Shannon John Brian Shannon

What could be better than creating rich cropland out of the world’s desert regions?

It’s a tempting idea. Some 33% of the world’s landmass is covered with desert landscape and 40,000 miles of coastlines are adjoining deserts. Nothing but ocean, sun, and sand. But in those hostile regions, some prototype halophyte farming projects have scored significant successes.

NASA - Earth with Global Deserts
Looking for a place to grow Halophytes? Coastal desert regions are your best bet. NASA – Earth with Global Deserts

Halophytes for human food, for livestock feed, and for biofuel production

Whether halophyte crops are grown for food (the ‘tenders’ or ‘leaves’ of the plant have a light nutty and salty taste) or to feed livestock (the stalks) or for biofuel production, growing these crops along coastal regions restores plant life to desert areas adjoining the ocean.

Exclusive report – Boeing reveals “the biggest breakthrough in biofuels ever” (Energy Post EU)

A land plan that grows halopyhtes food for humans/livestock feed and for biofuel production will produce the best economic result

“Integrating those two systems you get sustainable aquaculture that does not pollute the oceans and biomass that can be used for fuels” — Darrin L. Morgan

As a bonus in poverty-stricken lands, dried halophytes (branches/roots) can serve as an infinitely cleaner cookstove fuel than what is presently used in such areas — which is often dried livestock dung or expensive kerosene.

Halophytes are those crops which are salt-tolerant and can survive the blistering heat of the world’s deserts. Many of the crops we presently grow have salt-resistant cousins — all they need is trenches or pipelines to deliver the water inland from the sea.

Halophytes negate the need to remove the high salt content of ocean water which in itself, is a very costly proposition with desalination plants costing millions of dollars.

‘Plants called halophytes show even more promise than we expected.’ Image courtesy of the Sustainable Bioenergy Research Consortium (SBRC) affiliated with the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi.
‘Plants called halophytes show even more promise than we expected.’ Image courtesy of the Sustainable Bioenergy Research Consortium (SBRC) affiliated with the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology in Abu Dhabi.

As halophyte farms become established they improve the growing conditions for non-halophyte plants

Most deserts are sand, which means all that is required to begin creating usable farmland is startup funding, farm machinery, a field plan and seeds, and of course, plenty of farm labourers.

Creating Wealth out of Sand and Seawater

Some of the poorest places on the planet are also ‘rich’ in deserts and are located near plentiful salt water resources, making them suitable candidates for halophyte farming. Economic benefits for poor countries are stable growth, lower unemployment, better balance-of-trade and less reliance on foreign food aid programmes.

If you can grow your own food at low cost, why buy it from other countries?

Halophytes Greening Eritrea Part I (Martin Sheen narrates the early days of Eritrea’s very successful halophyte farming and inland seafood production)

Halophytes Greening Eritrea Part II

Seawater irrigation agriculture projects for deserts (completely rainless regions)

2012 Yuma, Arizona Salicornia planting

Sahara Forest Project: From vision to reality

University of Phoenix Seawater Farming Overview

Growing Potatoes using Saltwater Farming Techniques in the Netherlands

Other successful examples exist in other coastal regions around the world

Helping to mitigate global sea level rises due to climate change, creating powerful economic zones out of desert, seawater and labour, lowering unemployment in poverty-stricken nations, removing carbon from the atmosphere and returning it to the soil, all while dramatically increasing crop and seafood production are all benefits of growing halophytes in coastal desert regions of the world.

Stage I Coastal Desert transformation

The first 25,000 miles of coastal desert out of a grand total of 40,000 miles of coastal desert globally can be converted to this kind of farming simply by showing up and using existing simple technologies/cultivation methods and seed varieties.

Stage II Coastal Desert transformation

The other 15,000 miles of coastal desert regions could be viewed as Stage II of this process after the best candidate areas become fully cultivated, as these secondary regions may require more capital investment for conversion due to their somewhat more inland locations.

Huge opportunity awaits early investors in this rediscovered agricultural market. Cheap land, free ocean water, low cost seeds and local labour, and a reputation as businesspeople who can solve local problems add value and employment to poverty-stricken regions, and lead growing nations forward, look promising for seawater/halophyte farming owner/operators and investors.

Further Reading

Biofuel research nets precious metals and biofuel from toxic mining sludge

Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals and biofuel from mining sludge| 29/12/14
Originally published on MINING.COM by Cecilia Jamasmie

British scientists and authorities are conducting cutting-edge research aimed to clean up a flooded tin mine in Cornwall county by using algae to harvest precious heavy metals in toxic water and produce biofuel at the same time.

Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals and biofuel from mining sludge. Image courtesy of the GW4 Alliance.
Cornwall county, UK — Scientists test algae to harvest precious metals from mining sludge (creating biofuel in the process) Image courtesy of the GW4 Alliance.

The project, led by the GW4 Alliance, has brought together the universities of Bath, Bristol, Cardiff and Exeter, in collaboration with Plymouth Marine Laboratory (PML), the Coal Authority and waste management group Veolia. And while it is still in its very early stage, the parties involved hope it delivers an effective new way to deal with toxic waste.

The team, which is taking untreated mine water from the Wheal Jane tin mine, has already began growing algae in those samples to explore whether the organism is effective in removing harmful materials, such as arsenic and cadmium.

The plan is to convert the lab-grown algae into a solid from which heavy metals can be extracted and recycled for use in the electronics industry. The remaining solid waste will then be used to make biofuels.

The plan is to convert the lab-grown algae into a solid from which heavy metals can be extracted and recycled for use in the electronics industry. The remaining solid waste will then be used to make biofuels.

It’s a win-win solution to a significant environmental problem.

We’re putting contaminated water in and taking out valuable metals, clean water and producing fuel. — Dr. Chris Chuck from the University of Bath’s Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies said in a statement

The team hopes to begin a pilot project at the mine in the New Year. The aim will then be to scale it up. If successful, the scientists believe the technology could be used to treat many forms of environmental pollution.

Microalgae cultivation project in southern Portugal

Innovative integrated microalgae cultivation to be demonstrated at one-hectare unit in southern Portugal
by Wageningen UR Food & Biobased Research and is reposted here with the kind permission of the authours

A consortium of biotechnology experts, including experts of Wageningen UR, has started to build a one-hectare pilot unit for the production of microalgae in Portugal.

This unit will demonstrate an innovative integrated approach to produce microalgae biomass with biodiesel validation in a sustainable manner.

Innovative integrated microalgae cultivation to be demonstrated at one-hectare unit in southern Portugal. Image courtesy of www wageningenur nl
Innovative integrated microalgae cultivation pilot project at one-hectare unit in southern Portugal. Image courtesy of www.wageningenur.nl

The demonstration pilot unit is one of the milestones expected from the Integrated Sustainable Algae (InteSusAl) project in which Wageningen UR is involved.

The project aims at optimising the production of algae by both heterotrophic and phototrophic routes. Also, it will demonstrate integration of these production technologies to achieve the microalgae cultivation targets of 90-120 dry tonnes per hectare per year.

Secure energy supply

InteSusAl’s demonstration unit comes in a time of extreme importance to ensure Europe’s energy supply security.

We are glad that the European Commission is making it possible to demonstrate this new approach to produce microalgae biomass.

We hope that our results will attract attention from investors interested in financing a 10-hectare site to produce microalgae in a sustainable manner on an industrial scale. — Dr Neil Hindle, coordinator of the InteSusAl project

Pilot site

The project integrates heterotrophic and phototrophic production technologies, using bio-diesel glycerol as carbon source to the heterotrophic unit and validating the biomass output for bio-diesel conversion.

The demonstration unit will be located in the municipality of Olhão, in the Algarve region of Southern Portugal. The pilot site will be composed of a set of fermentation units, tubular photobioreactors and raceways.

The sustainability of this demonstration, in terms of both economic and environmental (closed carbon loop) implications will be considered across the whole process, assessed via a robust life cycle analysis.

InteSusAl Project

The InteSusAl Consortium is composed of 6 partners from 4 European countries. The demonstration trials are expected to begin in October 2014.

InteSusAl has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstrations.